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Baal, Baalim - A word which belongs to the oldest stock of the Semite vocabulary and primarily means 'lord', 'owner' Babel, Tower of - Information on the history, site, and construction of the tower Babylonia - Includes geography, history, and biblical references Bacchus and Sergius - Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East Bacon, Roger - Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294 Baconian System of Philosophy, The - Essay takes a look at this system and its relation to theology and the beliefs of the Catholic church Bahama Islands, The - The most northerly group of the West Indies Baius, Michel - Theologian and author of a system known as Baianism (1513-1589) Balaam - The derivation of the name is uncertain. Dr. Neubauer would connect it with the god Ammo or Ammi, as though Balaam belonged to a people whose god or lord was Ammo or Ammi Balboa, Vasco Nuñez de - Explorer, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of Central America (1475-1517) Balsam - Balsam is an oily, resinous, and odorous substance, which flows spontaneously or by incision from certain plants, and which the Church mixes with olive oil for use as chrism Baltasar - The Greek and Latin name for Belshazzar, which is the Hebrew equivalent for Bel-sarra-usur, i.e., 'May Bel protect the king' Baltimore, Archdiocese of - History includes colonial and American periods Baltimore, Plenary Councils of - Provides details of three councils held in 1852, 1866, and 1884 Bankruptcy, Moral Aspect of - Bankruptcy must be considered not only from the legal but also from the moral point of view; for sound morality prescribes that debts must be paid Banns of Marriage - In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage Baptism - One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church; frequently called the 'first sacrament', the 'door of the sacraments', and the 'door of the Church' Baptismal Font - A basin or vase, serving as a receptacle for baptismal water in which the candidate for baptism is immersed, or over which he is washed, in the ceremony of Christian initiation Baptismal Vows - The name popularly given to the renunciations required of an adult candidate for baptism just before the sacrament is conferred Baptistery - The separate building in which the Sacrament of Baptism was once solemnly administered, or that portion of the church-edifice later set apart for the same purpose Baptists - A Protestant denomination which exists chiefly in English speaking countries and owes its name to its characteristic doctrine and practice regarding baptism Barat, Madeleine-Sophie - Founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart, d. 1865 Barbara, Saint - Legendary virgin and martyr, first mentioned in the early seventh century. Alleged to have died in the third or fourth century, but date is uncertain and place of martyrdom varies Barcelona - One of the suffragan dioceses of the Archdiocese of Tarragona Bardesanes and Bardesanites - Syrian Gnostic or, more correctly, a Syrian poet, astrologist, and philosopher, d. 222, at Edessa Barjesus - False prophet mentioned in the New Testament Barlaam and Josaphat - Main characters of a seventh-century Christian legend. Barlaam, a hermit, converted the prince Josaphat to Christianity, despite the efforts of Josaphat's father Abenner to prevent such a thing. Although Barlaam and Josaphat are included in the Roman Martyrology and in the Greek calendar, the story is actually a Christianized version of a legend about Buddha Barnabas, The Epistle of - Contains no clue to its author nor to those for whom it was intended Barnabas, Saint - Originally Joseph, styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture, and, like St. Paul, ranked by the Church with the Twelve, though not one of them Barocco Style - A debased application to architecture of Renaissance features Bartholomew, Saint - Mentioned in the lists of apostles in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, thought to be identical with Nathaniel (mentioned only in the Gospel of John) Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Saint - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes Barton, Elizabeth - Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the 'Nun of Kent' Baruch - The disciple of Jeremiah, and the traditional author of the deuto-canonical book, which bears his name Basil the Great, Saint - Biographical article on the Bishop of Caesarea, who is one of the Cappadocian Fathers, Doctor of the Church, and brother of St. Gregory of Nyssa Basil, Liturgy of Saint - Several Oriental liturgies, or at least several anaphoras, have been attributed to the great St. Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia from 370 to 379 Basil, Rule of Saint - St. Basil drew up his Rule for the members of the monastery he founded about 356 on the banks of the Iris in Cappadocia Basilica - The term can indicate either the architectural style of a church, or its canonical status Basilides - The earliest of the Alexandrian Gnostics, a native of Alexandria and flourished under the Emperors Adrian and Antoninus Pius, about 120-140 Basle, Council of - Convoked by Pope Martin V in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449 Bas-relief - A sculpture executed upon and attached to a flat surface Basutoland - A mountainous district of South Africa, bounded on the north and west by the Orange River Colony, on the easy by Natal, and on the south by Cape Colony Battle Abbey - Founded by William the Conqueror on the site of the Battle of Senlae or Hastings (1066) Bavaria, The Kingdom of - Named after the German tribe called Boiarii Baylon, Saint Pascal - Aragonese Franciscan lay brother, d. 1592 Beads, Use of, at Prayers - Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians Beards - Among the Jews, as among most Oriental peoples, the beard was especially cherished as a symbol of virility; to cut off another man's beard was an outrage Beatific Vision - The immediate knowledge of God which the angelic spirits and the souls of the just enjoy in Heaven Beatification and Canonization - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis Beatitudes, Mount of - Name given to the place where the 'Sermon on the Mount', was delivered Beatitudes, The Eight - The solemn blessings which mark the opening of the Sermon on the Mount Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant - Soldier, b. near New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., 28 May, 1818; d. there 20 February, 1893 Becket, Saint Thomas - Biography of this martyr, also known as St. Thomas of Canterbury, where he was archbishop and where he was murdered in 1170 Bede - The old English word bede (Anglo-Saxon bed) means a prayer, though the derivative form, gebed, was more common in this sense in Anglo-Saxon literature Bede, The Venerable - Benedictine monk, priest, historian, Doctor of the Church, d. 735 Bedlam - A London hospital originally intended for the poor suffering from any ailment and for such as might have no other lodging, hence its name, Bethlehem, in Hebrew, the 'house of bread.' Beelzebub - Provides an Old and a New Testament definition Beethoven, Ludwig van - Composer (1770-1827) Beguines & Beghards - As early as the commencement of the twelfth century there were women in the Netherlands who lived alone, and without taking vows devoted themselves to prayer and good works Behaim, Martin - A German cartographer and navigator (1459-1507) Belfry - The upper part of the tower or steeple of a church, for the reception of the bells; or a detached tower containing bells, as the campanile of the Italians Belgium - Information on the history, education, and cemeteries of the country Belial - Found frequently as a personal name in the Vulgate and various English translations of the Bible, is commonly used as a synonym of Satan, or the personification of evil Belief - That state of the mind by which it assents to propositions, not by reason of their intrinsic evidence, but because of authority Bell, Angelus - The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell Bellarmine, St. Robert - Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal Bellini - Giacomo (Jacopo) Bellini, father of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini. Teacher of his sons who were the chief founders of the Venetian school of painting Bells - Article covers origin, benediction, uses, archaeology and inscriptions, and points of law Belshazzar - The Greek and Latin name for Belshazzar, which is the Hebrew equivalent for Bel-sarra-usur, i.e., 'May Bel protect the king' Benedict I, Pope - A Roman and the son of Boniface, and was called Bonosus by the Greeks Benedict II, Saint, Pope - A Roman, he was pope for a little less than eleven months, and died in 685. Account of his pontificate Benedict III, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 17 April, 858 Benedict IV, Pope - A Roman and the son of Mammalus, became pope in the first half of 900 Benedict V, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 4 July, 965 Benedict VI, Pope - Benedict, Cardinal-Deacon of St. Theodore, a Roman and the son of Hildebrand, was elected as the successor of John XIII Benedict VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. c. October, 983 Benedict VIII, Pope - The first of the Tusculan popes. Date of birth unknown; d. 9 April, 1024 Benedict IX, Pope - The nephew of his two immediate predecessors Benedict X - The bearer of this name was an antipope in the days of Nicholas II, 1056-61 Benedict XI, Pope - Elected unanimously, author of Scriptural commentaries, d. 1304 Benedict XII, Pope - Third of the Avignon popes (1334-1342) Benedict XIII, Pope - Reigned 1724-1730 Benedict XIV, Pope - Reigned 1740-58 Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint - Frenchman, longed to be a monk but spent the last thirteen years of his life as a pilgrim. He died in 1783 Benedict of Nursia, Saint - Long article on the founder of Western monasticism, and on his Rule Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict Benedict, Rule of Saint - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application Benedictine Order - Comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as 'black monks' Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament - Description of the basics of this popular devotion. Benediction is unusual in that it is a devotional practice partly governed by liturgical law Benedictus, The - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis Benefice - Popularly the term is often understood to denote either certain property destined for the support of ministers of religion, or a spiritual office or function, such as the care of souls Bengy, Anatole de - A martyr of the French Commune (1824-1871) Benjamin - The youngest son of Jacob born of Rachel Benthamism - Article on Jeremy Bentham, English jurist and reformer. Features biographical information and a short bibliography Benziger, Joseph Charles - Founder of the Catholic publishing house that bears his name (1762-1841) Berchmans, Saint John - Biography of this Jesuit, always pious, who died in 1621 at the age of 22 Berengarius of Tours - Born at Tours about 999; died on the island of St. Cosme, near that city, in 1088 Bernard, Saint - Soldier, monk, abbot, Archbishop of Vienne, d. 842 Bernard, Claude - French physiologist (1813-1878) Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint - Article on the life and works of this twelfth-century Cistercian and Doctor of the Church Bernard of Cluny - A Benedictine monk of the first half of the twelfth century, poet, satirist, and hymn-writer, author of 'On the Contempt of the World' Bernard of Menthon, Saint - Archdeacon of Aosta, preacher, founder of two hospices for travelers in dangerous Alpine passes (now named the Great St. Bernard and Little St. Bernard, after him), d. 1008 Bernardine of Siena, Saint - Biography of the Franciscan missionary, reformer, popular preacher, peacemaker, called 'the Apostle of Italy,' who died in 1380 Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo - Italian architect and sculptor (1598-1680) Berosus - The name of a native historian of Babylonia and a priest of the great god Bel (Bel-Marduk) Bethany - A village of Palestine Bethlehem - Birthplace of Jesus Bethsaida - Details the city, pool, and titular see of this name Betrothal - In the Catholic Church, a deliberate and free, mutual, true promise, externally expressed, of future marriage between determinate and fit persons Betting - Defined as the backing of an affirmation or forecast by offering to forfeit, in case of an adverse issue, a sum of money or article of value to one who, by accepting, maintains the opposite and backs his opinion by a corresponding stipulation Bezae, Codex - Greek, New Testament manuscript Bibiana, Saint - Female Roman martyr, d. 483 at the latest. Also called Vibiana Bible, The - A collection of writings recognized as inspired Bible, Authenticity of the - The authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship: human authors and divine inspiration Bible, Coptic Versions of the - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest Bible, Editions of the - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions Bible, Inspiration of the - Covered in four sections, I. Belief in Inspired books; II. Nature of Inspiration; III. Extent of Inspiration; IV. Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible Bible, Manuscripts of the - Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof Bibles, Picture - In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching Biblical Antiquities - Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities Biblical Commission, The - A committee of cardinals at Rome who, with the assistance of consultors, have to secure the observance of the prescriptions contained in the Encyclical 'Providentissimus Deus' for the proper interpretation and defence of Sacred Scripture Bigamy (in Canon Law) - Canonically viewed, bigamy denotes (a) the condition of a man married to two real or interpretative wives in succession, and as a consequence (b) his unfitness to receive, or exercise after reception, tonsure, minor and sacred orders Bigamy (in Civil Law) - In civil jurisprudence, and especially in criminal law, is a 'formal entering into of a marriage while a former one remains un-dissolved' Billart, Saint Julie - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816 Bilocation - Latin bis, twice, and locatio, place Bination - The offering up of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass twice on the same day by the same celebrant Biogenesis and Abiogenesis - According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life Biology - The science on life and living organisms Birds (in Symbolism) - The dove, eagle, pelican, phoenix, and peacock are included Biretta - A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from cardinals downwards Birth, The Defect of - Illegitimacy, a canonical impediment to ordination Bishop - The title of an ecclesiastical dignitary who possesses the fullness of the priesthood to rule a diocese as its chief pastor, in due submission to the primacy of the pope Bishop, Auxiliary - A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is unable to perform the pontifical functions; or whose diocese is so extensive that it requires the labors of more than one; or whose episcopal see has attached to it a royal or imperial office requiring protracted presence at court Bishop's Crook - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions Black Fast, The - This form of fasting, the most rigorous in the history of church legislation, was marked by austerity regarding the quantity and quality of food permitted on fasting days as well as the time wherein such food might be legitimately taken Blackfoot Indians - An important tribe of the Northern Plains, constituting the westernmost extension of the great Algonquian stock Blaise, Saint - Bishop of Sebaste, martyr, d. about 316 Blasphemy - Signifies etymologically gross irreverence towards any person or thing worthy of exalted esteem Blessed, The - Beatification is a permission for public worship restricted to certain places and to certain acts Blessed Sacrament, The - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church Blessed Sacrament, Exposition of the - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it Blessed Sacrament, Reservation of the - The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated elements for the Communion of the sick or for other pious purposes. The extreme antiquity of such reservation cannot be disputed Blessed Sacrament, Visits to the - A devotional practice of relatively modern development, honoring the Real Presence of Christ Blessed Virgin Mary, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God Blessing - Aspects discussed are, I. Antiquity; II. Minister; III. Objects; IV. Efficacy; and V. Rite employed in administering Blessing, Apostolic - The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions Blind, Education of the - Includes statistics and history Blood Indians - A group of North American aborigines forming part of the Blackfeet Tribe, which, with the Apapahoes and Cheyennes, constitute the Western division of the Algonquin family Bluetooth, Harold - Son of King Gorm the Old of Denmark (911-986) Bobola, Saint Andrew - Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657 Boccaccio, Giovanni - Biography and overview of the author's major works Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus - Article with a focus on Boethius as a theologian Bohemia - Crown province of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which until 1526 was an independent kingdom Bohemian Brethren - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722 Bohemians of the United States - Religious dissensions at the beginning of the seventeenth century induced many to leave their native country and cross the ocean Bollandists, The - An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum Bologna, University of - A tradition of the thirteenth century attributed the foundation of this university to Theodosius II (433); but this legend is now generally rejected Bombay - The Archdiocese of Bombay comprises the Island of Bombay with several outlying churches in the neighbouring Island of Salsette Bonaventure, Saint - Biobibliographical essay on the Franciscan theologian and Doctor of the Church, d. 1274 Boniface, Saint - Born Winfrid, a native of England, Benedictine monk, the Apostle of Germany, martyred in 755 Boniface I, Pope Saint - Consecrated the same day as the antipope Eulalius. Both were ordered to leave Rome. Eulalius took over St. John Lateran on Holy Saturday, after which the emperor refused to consider his claim. Boniface died in 422 Boniface II, Pope - Elected 17 September, 530; died October, 532 Boniface III, Pope - Roman elected to succeed Sabinian after an interregnum of nearly a year; he was consecrated 19 February, 607; d. 12 November of the same year Boniface IV, Pope Saint - Transformed the Pantheon into a Christian church, died in 615 Boniface V, Pope - A Neapolitan who succeeded Deusdedit after a vacancy of more than a year; consecrated 23 December, 619 Boniface VI, Pope - A Roman, elected in 896 by the Roman faction in a popular tumult, to succeed Formosus Boniface VII, Antipope - Roman and son of Ferrucius; was intruded into the Chair of St. Peter in 974; reinstalled 984; died July, 985 Boniface VIII, Pope - Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303 Boniface IX, Pope - Elected at Rome, 2 November, 1389, as successor of the Roman Pope, Urban VI; d. there, 1 October, 1404 Book of Common Prayer - Includes history and contents Book of Kells - An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian canons, known also as the 'Book of Columba' Book of Martyrs, Foxe's - Protestant martyrology, from Wyclif to Cranmer, illustrated with woodcuts. The author was a controversialist sympathetic to John Knox Books, Index of Prohibited - The exact list or catalogue of books, the reading of which was once forbidden to Catholics by the highest ecclesiastical authority Borromeo, Saint Charles - Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation Borromini, Francesco - Architect and sculptor; born 25 September, 1599, at Bissone; died by his own hand 1 August, 1667, at Rome Bosco, Saint Giovanni (John) - Commonly called Don Bosco or John Bosco. Founder of the Salesians, d. 1888 Bosnia and Herzegovina - Together, form the northwestern corner of the Balkan Peninsula Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne - French bishop and orator (1627-1704) Boston - Archdiocese; comprises Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties in the State of Massachusetts, U.S.A Botticelli, Sandro - Florentine painter (1447-1510) Bouvier, Jeanne-Marie, de La Motte-Guyon - Essay on the life, experiences, and teachings of this seventeenth-century French mystic Boy-Bishop - The custom of electing a boy-bishop on the feast of St. Nicholas dates from very early times, and was in vogue in most Catholic countries, but chiefly in England Boycotting - Practice named after Captain Boycott, against whom this form of ostracism had great effect Brahminism - Religion and social system which grew out of the polytheistic nature-worship of the ancient Aryan conquerors of northern India Braille, Louis - French educator and inventorof the system of writing in raised or relief points for the blind (1809-1852) Bramante, Donato - Italian architect and painter, b. about 1444 at Monte Asdrualdo; d. in Rome, 11 March, 1514 Brazil - Information includes history, religion, climate, education, and economy Bread, Liturgical Use of - In the Christian liturgy bread is used principally as one of the elements of the Eucharistic sacrifice Breads, Altar - Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist Breast, Striking of the - A liturgical act prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass Brébeuf, Jean de - Biographical article on the Jesuit missionary and martyr Brehon Laws, The - Term for Irish native law, as administered in Ireland down to almost the middle of the seventeenth century Brendan, Saint - Article on St. Brendan of Ardfert and Clonfert, also known as Brendan the Voyager. Monastic founder, d. 577. About half of the article is devoted to St. Brendan's famous voyage Brethren of the Lord, The - A group of persons closely connected with the Saviour appears repeatedly in the New Testament under the designation 'his brethren' or 'the brethren of the Lord' Breviary - Evolution of the book, or set of books, containing the texts and rubrics of the canonical hours Breviary, Reform of the Roman - Article on the 1911-1913 revamping of the breviary so as to allow recitation of all of the Psalter each week. Feasts were also ranked according to liturgical importance, and some offices were no longer obligatory or were even suppressed Bribery - The payment or the promise of money or other lucrative consideration to induce another, while under the obligation of acting without any view to private emolument, to act as the briber shall prescribe Bridget of Sweden, Saint - Biography of the mother of 8, widow, visionary, founder of the Brigittines Briefs and Bulls - A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water Brigid of Ireland, Saint - Biography. Monastic founder, abbess of a double monastery, friend of St. Patrick. St. Brigid died in 525 Brigittines - Founded in 1346 by St. Brigit, or Bridget, of Sweden at Vadstena in the Diocese of Linkoeping Brooklyn - Comprises the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk, or all of Long Island, in the State of New York, U.S.A Brownson, Orestes Augustus - Philosopher, essayist, reviewer, b. at Stockbridge, Vermont, U.S.A., 16 September, 1803; d. at Detroit, Michigan, 17 April, 1876 Brunellesco, Filippo - An architect and sculptor, born at Florence, 1377; died there 16 April, 1446 Bruni, Leonardo - Article by Edmund Burke, summarizing the humanist's life and career Bruno, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Carthusians Bruno, Giordano - Italian philosopher (1548-1600) Buddhism - The religious, monastic system, founded c. 500 B.C. on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism Buildings, Ecclesiastical - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica Bulgaria - A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula Bull-Fight, The Spanish - Includes details of three kinds of bull-fights: (1) caballerescas, (2) populares, and (3) gladiatorias Bulls and Briefs - A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water Buonarroti, Michelangelo - Italian sculptor, painter, and architect (1475-1564) Burgundy - In medieval times respectively a kingdom and a duchy, later a province of France Burial, Christian - The interment of a deceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground Burse - A receptacle in which, for reasons of convenience xnd reverence, the folded corporal is carried to and from the altar Buskins - Ceremonial stockings of silk, sometimes interwoven with gold threads, and even heavily embroidered, worn by the celebrant of a pontifical Mass Butler, Alban - Seventeenth-century English Catholic Buttress - A pilaster, pier, or body of masonry projecting beyond the main face of the wall and intended to strengthen the wall at particular points Byrd, William - Article examining life, sacred and secular music, and related composers Byzantine Architecture - A mixed style, i.e. a style composed of Graeco-Roman and Oriental elements which, in earlier centuries, cannot be clearly separated Byzantine Art - The art of the Eastern Roman Empire and of its capital Byzantium, or Constantinople Byzantine Empire, The - Term employed to designate the Eastern survival of the ancient Roman Empire Byzantine Rite - The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople