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Maccabee, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4) Maccabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great Maccabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees Mace - A short, richly ornamented staff Macedonians - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost Machabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great Machabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees Machabeus, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4) Machiavelli - Including a short biography, a list of his works and a summary of his ideas Macrina the Younger, Saint - Granddaughter of St. Macrina the Elder, and the sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa. She died in 379 Madras - Archdiocese in India Madrid-Alcalá - Province and town in Spain Magdala - It is perhaps the Migdal-El mentioned in the Old Testament (Jos., xix, 38) belonging to the tribe of Nephtali Magdalens - The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their lives Magdeburg - Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for its industries, particularly the production of sugar, its trade, and its commerce. From 968 until 1552 it was the seat of an archbishopric Magellan, Ferdinand - Short biographical article on the Portuguese explorer (1480-1521) Magi - The 'wise men from the East' who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2) Magisterium and Tradition - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission Magna Carta - The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with modifications by Henry III in 1216, 1217, and 1225 Magnificat - The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) of Mary Maimonides, Teaching of Moses - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines Mainz - German town and bishopric in Hesse; formerly the seat of an archbishop and elector Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de - Biographical article, summarizing his chief arguments for authority and against Gallicanism Majella, St. Gerard - Tailor, Redemptorist, called 'Father of the Poor,' d. 1755 Majordomo - Chief steward of the household of the pope Malachias - Examination of the Old Testament prophet and book Malachy, Saint - Abbot of Bangor, later Archbishop of Armagh, d. 1148. Article includes testimony from St. Bernard of Clairvaux on St. Malachy's character Malatesta, House of - The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, famous alike in the poetry of Dante and in the annals of the early Renaissance Malchus - A name common in the Semitic languages and of special interest as being that borne by the Jewish servant whose ear was struck off by St. Peter Malediction (in Scripture) - Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, 'curse' in Douay Version Malory, Sir Thomas - Writer of the 'Morte Arthure', the earliest production of English prose Malta - The group of Maltese islands, including Malta, Gozo, Comine and a few inconsiderable islets, lies 58 miles south of Sicily and about 180 miles S.E. by E. of Cape Bon in Tunisia Malta, Knights of - The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration Mamertine Prison - The so-called 'Mamertine Prison', beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di Marforio, Rome, is generally accepted as being identical with 'the prison ... in the middle of the city, overlooking the forum', mentioned by Livy (I, xxxiii) Mammon - Mamona; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in printed Bibles till the edition of Elzevir Man - Includes sections on the nature of man, the origin of man, and the end of man Mandan Indians - Tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or Grosventre) and Arikara (Ree) the Fort Berthold reservation, on both sides of the Missouri, near its conjunction with the Knife River, North Dakota Mangalore - Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay Manichæism - A religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century Manila - This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac, and Zambales; and the Districts of Infanta and Marinduque in the Province of Tayabas Maniple - An ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little over a yard long and from somewhat over two to almost four inches wide, which is placed on the left arm in such manner that it falls in equal length on both sides of the arm Manna - The food miraculously sent to the Israelites during their forty years sojourn in the desert (Exodus 16 and Numbers 11:6-9) Manning, Henry Edward - Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster (1808-1892) Mantegna, Andrea - Biography of the Italian painter Manu, The Laws of - The English designation commonly applied to the 'Manava Dharma-sastra', a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism Manuscripts - Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript Manuscripts, Illuminated - A large number of manuscripts covered with painted ornaments Manuscripts of the Bible - Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof Marcellinus, Pope - Elected to the papacy in 296. He died in 304, probably of natural causes, since no early source calls him a martyr Marcellus I, Saint, Pope - After a vacancy in office following the death of Pope St. Marcellinus, was elected to the papacy in 308. Fairly lengthy biographical article Marcellus II, Pope - Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany; died 6 May, 1555, at Rome. His father, Ricardo Cervini, was Apostolic treasurer in the March of Ancona Marcian - Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. January, 457 Marcionites - Said that the creator 'god' of the Old Testament was not the good God and Father of Jesus Christ of the New Testament. Had their own shadow hierarchy and their own Bible, which consisted of parts of Luke and Paul, edited so as to disparage the Old Testament. Only the unmarried were allowed to be baptized. Marcionism may have led to the formation of the Apostle's Creed as rebuttal, and certainly was an incentive in deciding on the canon of the New Testament Marco Polo - Venetian traveller (1251-1324) Marcus, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher Margaret, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch Margaret of Hungary, Blessed - Princess who became a Dominican at the age of 4. She died in 1270 or 1271, and was canonized in 1943 Margaret Clitherow, Saint - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests Margaret Mary, Saint - Biographical article on the apostle of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Margaret of Cortona, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1297 Margaret of Scotland, Saint - Biographical entry on the eleventh-century queen Margaret Pole, Blessed - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541 Maria de Agreda - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665) Marian Priests - This term is applied to those English priests who being ordained in or before the reign of Queen Mary (1553-1558), survived into the reign of Elizabeth Maria Theresa - Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died 1780 Marie Antoinette - Biography of the Queen of France Marie de France - Twelfth-century French poetess Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable - Baptismal name Marie Guyard. First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec. Biography Marina, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch Marinus I, Pope - Reigned 882-884 Marinus II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946 Mark, Saint - What can be pieced together of St. Mark's life from Scripture. Also reports on tradition surrounding the saint Mark, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336 Mark, Gospel of - The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem Maronites - History of the Maronite nation and Church Marquette, Jacques - Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north central France; d. near Ludington, Michigan, 19 May, 1675 Marriage Banns - In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage Marriage, Civil - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution Marriage, History of - The Catholic views of marriage Marriage, Mixed - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of - Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights form one principle of generation Marriage, Mystical - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ Marriage, Ritual of - The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony is detailed Marriage, Sacrament of - Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons) is really a sacrament of the New Law in the strict sense of the word is for all Catholics an indubitable truth Marriage, Validation of - May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties Marsilius of Padua - Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342 Martel, Charles - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741 Martha, Saint - Sister of Mary of Bethany and of Lazarus Martianus Capella - Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century Martin I, Pope Saint - Opposed the Monothelites, who were supported by the emperor. He was taken prisoner to Constantinople, but refused to sign a heretical declaration. He died in exile in 655 Martin II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946 Martin IV, Pope - Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at an unknown date; d. at Perugia 28 March, 1285. As priest he held a benefice at Rouen for a short time, whereupon he became canon and treasurer at the church of St. Martin in Tours Martin V, Pope - Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431 Martin of Tours, Saint - Fairly lengthy biographical article on this bishop, who died in around 397 Martyr - The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge from personal observation. The term martyr came to be exclusively applied to those who had died for the faith Martyrology - By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the order of their feasts, i. e., according to the calendar Martyrs, Acts of the - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court Martyrs, Japanese - The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860 Mary, Blessed Virgin, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God Mary, Children of - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast Mary, Devotion to the Heart of - Description of this devotion, along with its history Mary, Devotion to the Virgin - Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. . . Mary, Mother of John Mark - We know nothing of her; but from the fact that a meeting of the Church was held in her house, we may conclude that she was possessed of some wealth Mary, Name of - In Scripture and in Catholic use Mary, Name of - The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers) - A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion they profess toward the Blessed Virgin Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus Mary of Cleophas - This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the cross would seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph (Mark 15:40; cf. Matthew 27:56) Mary of Romans 16:6 - She had 'laboured much among' the Roman Church, hence St. Paul's salutation to her Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1791 Maryland - One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States of the American Union Mary Magdalen, Saint - Article on the Apostle to the Apostles Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint - Biography of the 17th-century Carmelite mystic Mary of Egypt, Saint - Biographical article on the penitent and hermit, who died around 421 Mary Queen of Scots - Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was the only legitimate child of James V of Scotland Mary Tudor - Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the daughter and only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon Masaccio - Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold situated between Arezzo and Florence; died, probably at Rome, in 1429 Masonry - An overview of Freemasonry and description of its condemnation by the Catholic Church Mass, Liturgy of the - The complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites Mass, Music of the - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment Mass, Nuptial - 'Missa pro sponso et sponsa', the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacrament of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element Mass, Sacrifice of the - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy' Massa Candida - The fame of the Massa Candida has been perpetuated chiefly through two early references to them: that of St. Augustine, and that of the poet Prudentius Massachusetts - One of the thirteen original United States of America. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers part of the territory originally granted to the Plymouth Company of England Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes Masses, Bequests for - Information on court cases about the subject Massorah - The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels and accents Materialism - As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the only reality in the world, which undertakes to explain every event in the universe as resulting from the conditions and activity of matter, and which thus denies the existence of God and the soul Mathusala - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5 Matilda, Saint - Biography of the Queen of Germany, wife of Henry I (the Fowler). She died in 968 Matilda, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298 Matins - Not Morning Prayer, but a nighttime prayer, which has now been replaced by the Office of Readings Matter - Taking the term in its widest sense, matter signifies that out of which anything is made or composed Matthew, Saint - The Apostle and Evangelist, in Scripture and tradition Matthew, Gospel of Saint - Detailed article about the first Gospel Matthias, Saint - The Apostle, in Scripture and legend Maundy Thursday - The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the observances peculiar to Holy Week Maurice, Saint - Leader of the Theban Legion, killed around 287 Maximus of Constantinople, Saint - Also known as Maximus the Theologian or Maximus Confessor. Monk, abbot, wrote on ascetic mysticism, and on the Incarnation against the Monothelites. Died in exile, 662 Maya Indians - The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their civilization and in population and resources, formerly occupying a territory of about 60,000 square miles, including the whole of the peninsula of Yucatan, Southern Mexico, together with the adjacent portion of Northern Guatemala Mecca - The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees Mechtilde, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298 Mechtild of Magdeburg - A famous medieval mystic (1210-1285) Medals, Devotional - A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, but struck or cast for a commemorative purpose, and adorned with some appropriate effigy, device, or inscription. In the present article we are concerned only with religious medals Medal, Miraculous - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris Medal of Saint Benedict - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict Media and Medes - An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof Mediator (Christ as Mediator) - A mediator is one who brings estranged parties to an amicable agreement. In New Testament theology the term invariably implies that the estranged beings are God and man, and it is appropriated to Christ, the One Mediator Medici, House of - A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a few generations to be first the unofficial rulers of the republic of Florence and afterwards the recognized sovereigns of Tuscany Medici, Catherine de' - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France Medici, Maria de' - Queen of France; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642 Medicine, History of - Presents the history of modern medical science from its Greek foundation Melancthon, Philipp - Extensive article, informative. Thorough examination of his humanism and his contributions to western educational theory and practice Melchisedech - King of Salem (Gen. xiv, 18-20) Melchites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite Melito, Saint - Bishop of Sardis, ecclesiastical writer, latter half of the second century Melkites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite Memory - Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, and reproduce them later with some degree of fidelity Mencius - Chinese philosopher (b. 371 B.C.) Mendel, Mendelism - Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia; d. 6 January 1884, at the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas, Brunn Mendicant Friars - Members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of poverty renounced all proprietorship not only individually but also (and in this differing from the monks) in common, relying for support on their own work and on the charity of the faithful. Hence the name of begging friars Mennonites - A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland Menologium - A particular service-book of the Greek Church. From its derivation the term Menologium means 'month-set', in other words, a book arranged according to the months Mensa, Mensal Revenue - The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification 'a table for meals'; it designates by extension the expenses, or better, the necessary resources of sustenance, and generally, all the resources for personal support. He who lives at the expense of another, and at his table, is his 'commensal'. In ecclesiastical language, the mensa is that portion of the property of a church which is appropriated to defraying the expenses either of the prelate or of the community which serves the church, and is administered at the will of the one or the other Mental Reservation - The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and which is its complement Mercedarians - A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born 1189, at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Department of Aude, France Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of - Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have compassion for, and, if possible, to alleviate another's misfortune Mercy, Sisters of - A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, born 29 September, 1787, at Stormanstown House, County Dublin Merici, Saint Angela - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540 Merit - By merit (meritum) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the doer to receive a reward from him in whose service the work is done Messias - The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah, 'the anointed'. The word appears only twice of the promised prince (Daniel 9:26; Psalm 2:2); yet, when a name was wanted for the promised one, who was to be at once King and Saviour, it was natural to employ this synonym for the royal title, denoting at the same time the King's royal dignity and His relation to God Metalwork in the Service of the Church - From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ceremonies. This practice increased during the Middle Ages Metaphysics - That portion of philosophy which treats of the most general and fundamental principles underlying all reality and all knowledge Metempsychosis - The doctrine of the transmigration of souls, teaches that the same soul inhabits in succession the bodies of different beings, both men and animals Methodism - A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations Methodius and Cyril, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs Methuselah - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5 Metropolitan - In ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the principal city, or see, of an ecclesiastical province Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von - Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859 Mexico - Situated at the extreme point of the North American continent, bounded on the north by the United States, on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, and Guatemala, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean Miami Indians - An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what is now Indiana and western Ohio, including the territories drained by the Wabash, St. Joseph, Maumee, and Miami rivers Michael the Archangel, Saint - Article about this angel in Scripture and tradition Michael, Military Orders of Saint - Information on three groups by this name Michael Cærularius - Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058 Michelangelo Buonarroti - Italian sculptor, painter, and architect (1475-1564) Middle Ages - A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the Fall of the Roman Empire and about the middle of the fifteenth century Midwives - Come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, baptism and matrimony Migne, Jacques-Paul - Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, 24 October, 1875 Migration - The movement of populations from place to place Milan - Located in Lombardy, northern Italy Military Orders, The - A historical review of dozens of military orders Millennium and Millenarianism - At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it Millet, Jean-François - French painter; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875 Miltiades, Pope Saint - Died in 314. An African, his name is also sometimes given as Miltiadea or Melchiades Mind - Explores the term in relation to consciousness, matter, and mechanism Minister - Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic. This employment of the term dates from Calvin Minor Orders - The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of minor orders, in opposition to the 'major' or 'sacred' orders Mint, Papal - History of the coins Minucius Felix - Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known Miracle - In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, i.e., wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God Miracle Plays and Mysteries - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages Miracles, Gift of - The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost Miraculous Medal - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della - Italian philosopher and scholar (1463-1494) Miserere - The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1 Missa Pro Populo - A Mass celebrated for parishioners on all Sundays and holidays of obligation Missal - The book which contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year Mission, Congregation of Priests of the - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul Mission Indians (of California) - A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to designate the modern descendants of those tribes of California, of various stocks and languages, evangelized by the Franciscans in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries, beginning in 1769 Missions, California - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California Missions, Catholic - A general survey of the missionary activity of the Catholic Church at the time the article was written (1908) Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada - History of the missions Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States - Includes the history of the missions and a list of the missionary martyrs Missouri Test-Oath - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States Mithraism - A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra Mitre - A kind of folding-cap consisting of two like parts, each stiffened by a lining and rising to a peak; these are sewn together on the sides, but are united above by a piece of material that can fold together Mixed Marriage - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels Moab, Moabites - In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter (Genesis 19:37); (2) the people of whom this son of Lot is represented as the ancestor (Exodus 15:15, etc.), and who are also called 'the Moabites' (Genesis 19:37); and possibly (3) the territory occupied by the Moabites (Numbers 21:11) Mobile - Suffragan of New Orleans, comprises the State of Alabama and western Florida Modalism (Monarchianism) - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism Modernism - Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas Mohammed and Mohammedism - Mohammed, 'the Praised One', the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) A.D. 570 Molai, Jacques de - Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune since 1265, Molai is mentioned as Grand Master of the Templars as early as 1298 Molinism - The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will Moloch - A divinity worshipped by the idolatrous Israelites Monad - The word monad is used by the neo-Platonists to signify the One; for instance, in the letters of the Christian Platonist Synesius, God is described as the Monad of Monads Monarchians - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism Monasteries in England, Suppression of - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century Monasticism - The act of 'dwelling alone' (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious Monasticism, Eastern - Includes the origin and history Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian - Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the beginning of the fourth century Monasticism, Western - The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from about A.D. 340 when St. Athanasius visited Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore, disciples of St. Anthony Monica, Saint - Widow, d. 387. The mother of St. Augustine of Hippo Monism - A philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism Monk - A member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs Monogram of Christ - By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by combining the first two letters of the Greek form; this monogram was also known as the Chrismon Monophysites and Monophysitism - Rejected the dual nature of Christ. Rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451) Monopoly, Moral Aspects of - According to its etymology, monopoly (monopolia) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive privilege of selling. Present usage, however, extends the term to any degree of unified control over a commodity sufficient to enable the person or corporation in control to limit supply and fix price Monotheism - A word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection Monothelitism and Monothelites - A modification of Monophysitism proposing that Christ had no human free will. Rejected by the Third Council of Constantinople (680) Monseigneur - A French honorific appellation, etymologically corresponding to the English 'my lord,' and the Italian monsignore Monsignor - As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom to address persons high in rank or power with the title Monseigneur or Monsignore Monstrance (Ostensorium) - A vessel designed for the exhibition of some object of piety Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de - A concise study of the thinker, by Georges Bertrin Montanists - Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or 'those among the Phrygians' (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians Monte Cassino, Abbey of - An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine Order Montes Pietatis - Charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of interest, or without interest at all, upon the security of objects left in pawn, with a view to protecting persons in want from usurers Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de - Detailed study of this writer's intellectual career, by Antoine Degert Montfort, Simon de - An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218 Months, Special Devotions for - A list of the more common devotions with the indulgences attached Montpellier - The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Herault, and is a suffragan of Avignon Mont-St-Michel - A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France Moral Theology - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end Moralities - Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the Miracle Plays and together with these form the greater part of Medieval drama. They were popular in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries and existed side by side with the Miracle Plays of that date Morality - Morality is antecedent to ethics: it denotes those concrete activities of which ethics is the science. It may be defined as human conduct in so far as it is freely subordinated to the ideal of what is right and fitting Moran, Francis Patrick - Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d, at Manly, Sydney, 16 Aug., 1911 Moravia - Austrian crown land east of Bohemia Moravian Brethren - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722 More, Thomas, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535 Morelos, José María - Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour), Mexico, on 30 September, 1765; shot at San Cristobal Ecatepec on 22 December, 1815 Mormons - Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This religious body had its origin during the early part of the nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, the founder and first president of the sect, was the son of a Vermont farmer, and was born in Sharon township, Windsor County, in that state, on 23 December, 1805 Mortification - One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and holy living Mosaic Legislation - The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws, and decisions comprised in the last four books of the Pentateuch, and ascribed by Christian and Hebrew tradition to Moses Mosaics - Includes information on the history and techniques Moscow - The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government (province) of Moscow, situated in almost the centre of European Russia Moses - Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part of the twelfth century, B. C Moses Maimonides, Teaching of - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines Motet - A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the Offertorium, or as a detached number in extra-liturgical functions Motu Proprio - The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own accord) used in the document Mount Athos - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386 Mount Saint Mary's College - The second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the United States, is located near Emmitsburg, Maryland, within the limits of the Archdiocese of Baltimore Mozarabic Rite - The name 'Mozarabic Rite' is given to the rite used generally in Spain and in what afterwards became Portugal from the earliest times of which we have any information down to the latter part of the eleventh century, and still surviving in the Capilla Muzarabe in Toledo cathedral and in the chapel of San Salvador or Talavera, in the old cathedral of Salamanca Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus - Biography of the composer (1756-1791) Mozzetta - A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open front, which may be fastened by means of a row of small buttons; at the neck it has a very small and purely ornamental hood Munich-Freising - An archdiocese in Bavaria Muratorian Canon - Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. Muratori (in the 'Antiquitates italicae', III, Milan, 1740, 851 sq.), the oldest known canon or list of books of the New Testament Murder - Signifies, in general, the killing of a human being. In practice, however, the word has come to mean the unjust taking away of human life, perpetrated by one distinct from the victim and acting in a private capacity Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban - Spanish painter, d. 1682. Artist's biography with bibliography Music, Ecclesiastical - By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical authority, is employed in connexion with Divine service to promote the glorification of God and the edification of the faithful Music of the Mass - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment Musical Instruments in Church Services - History of their use, starting with the organ Mysteries and Miracle Plays - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages Mystery - This term signifies in general that which is unknowable, or valuable knowledge that is kept secret Mystical Body of the Church - The members of the Church are bound together by a supernatural life communicated to them by Christ through the sacraments Mystical Marriage - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ Mystical Theology - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics Mysticism - Mysticism as direct union of the human soul with the Divinity primarily from a Catholic perspective, but does mention other mystical traditions