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Vacancy - A term applied to an office or position devoid of an incumbent, as a vacant benefice, bishopric, or parish Valens, Flavius - Emperor of the East (328-378) Valentine, Saint - At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under date of 14 February Valentine, Pope - Reigned briefly in A.D. 827 Valentinian I - Emperor of the West (321-375) Valentinus and Valentinians - The best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, born on the coast of Egypt Valerian - Biography of the Roman ruler, focusing on his treatment of Christians Validation of Marriage - May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties Valla, Lorenzo - Article by U. Benigni on the teachings of this Italian humanist Vallumbrosan Order - Founded by St. John Gualbert, son of the noble Florentine Gualbert Visdomini Van Beethoven, Ludwig - Composer (1770-1827) Van Cleef, Jan - Flemish painter (1646-1716) Vandals - A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe Vasari, Giorgio - Painter, architect, and writer (1511-1574) Vase, Altar - Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar Vatican, The - Detailed history and information Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The - Details of scientific activity in the Vatican Vatican Council - The twentieth and up to 1912, the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 December, 1869, and adjourned on 20 October, 1870 Vatican Observatory - Gregory XIII ordered a tower to be erected in a convenient part of the Vatican buildings, and to be fitted out with the greatest and best instruments of the time Vaticanus, Codex - A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century Vedas - Sacred books of ancient India Veil, Humeral - The name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 feet long and 18 inches wide Veil, Religious - The bride of Christ, as the vestal virgins had done, adopted the veil, which thus symbolized not so much the purity as the inviolable fidelity to Christ which was to be reverenced in her Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y - Artist's biography by Louis Gillet Venezuela - A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy general of the same name Veni Creator Spiritus - The most famous of hymns, assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) and Terce of Pentecost and throughout the octave Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus - Sung at Mass from Whitsunday until the following Saturday inclusively, and comprises ten stanzas Venice - The capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands joined together by 378 bridges mostly built of stone Verbiest, Ferdinand - Jesuit missionary and astronomer (1623-1688) Verdi, Giuseppe - Italian composer (1813-1901) Verne, Jules - Novelist (1828-1905) Veronica, Saint - Veronica is a name popularly given to one of the women who accompanied Christ to Calvary. 'Veronica' is an abbreviation of 'vera icon' (true image), and the woman now called Veronica is said to have offered a towel to Christ, on which he left the imprint of his face Veronica Giuliani, Saint - Short biographical article on this Capuchin, who died in 1727 Verrazano, Giovanni da - Navigator, died 1527 Verrocchio, Andrea del - Artist (1435-1488) Versions of the Bible - Article on versions of the Bible in the original languages and in translation. Grouped by source Versions of the Bible, Coptic - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest Vesalius, Andreas - The reorganizer of the study of anatomy Vespasian - Biography of the Roman Emperor Vespers - Historical article on Evening Prayer, one of the two principal canonical hours Vespers, Music of - Applies especially to the cathedral Office, i.e., the Liturgy of the Hours in a parish setting Vespers, Sicilian - The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou Vespucci, Amerigo - Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512) Vessels, Altar - The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained Vestibule (in Architecture) - A hall projecting in front of the facade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West Vestments - According to the rules of the Church or from ecclesiastical usage, are to be worn by the clergy in performing the ceremonies of the services of the Church Veto, The Royal - Lord Grenville presented a petition for the Catholics in the Lords, and, in moving for a committee, proposed an effective veto for the king on the appointment of bishops Vexilla Regis Prodeunt - Written by Venantius Fortunatus Via Crucis - Historical background on this devotion Via Dolorosa - Historical background on this devotion Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869 Viaticum - Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a journey Vicar - In canon law, the representative of a person clothed with ordinary ecclesiastical jurisdiction Vicar Apostolic - In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the duty of watching over ecclesiastical matters in a certain region Vicar of Christ - A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal primacy, both of honour and of jurisdiction, over the Church of Christ Vicar-General - The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary Vice - Regarded as a habit inclining one to sin Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani - First stanza of the Easter sequence Victor I, Pope Saint - Article on the late second-century pope, involved in the Quartodeciman controversy Victor II, Pope - Reigned 1055-57 Victor III, Pope Blessed - Benedictine monk, peacemaker, abbot of Monte Cassino, elected to the papacy in 1086, d. 1087 Victor IV - Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II Vienna - The capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin archbishopric Vienne, Council of - Convened 1311-1312, dealing mainly with the Knights Templar Vigilius, Pope - Reigned 537-55 Vikings - The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western Europe and its islands and then turned from raiding into settlers. Vincent, Saint - Essay on the deacon, a native of Saragossa, martyred in 304 Vincent de Paul, Saint - Biography of the French priest, founder of the Congregation of the Mission, who died in 1660 Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint - A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York) - Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint - International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor Vincent Ferrer, Saint - Biography of this Spanish-born Dominican missionary, who died in 1419 Vincent of Lérins, Saint - Essay on the fifth-century monk and ecclesiastical writer Vincentians - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da - Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and scholar (1452-1519) Violence - The stimulus or moving cause must come from without; no one can do violence to himself Virgin Birth of Christ - The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son Virgin Mary, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God Virgin Mary, Name of - The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam Virgin Mary, Devotion to the - Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints Virginity - Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous motive Virtue - According to its etymology the word virtue (Latin virtus) signifies manliness or courage Virtue, Heroic - St. Augustine first applied the pagan title of hero to the Christian martyrs Visigoths - One of the two principal branches of the Goths Visions - The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man Visit ad Limina - The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the 'thresholds of the Apostles', Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses Visitation, Canonical - The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view of maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses by the application of proper remedies Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Article on the event and the feast Visitation Order - The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and Salesian Sisters, were founded in 1610 Visitors Apostolic - Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates Visits to the Blessed Sacrament - A devotional practice of relatively modern development, honoring the Real Presence of Christ Vitalian, Pope Saint - He tried to win over the Monothelites who then held sway in Constantinople, and was the reigning pope at the time of the Synod of Whitby. He died in 672 Vitellius, Lucius - Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, 21 Dec., 69 Vivarini - A family of Italian painters. Alvise, Antonio, and Bartolommeo (Bartolommeo da Murano) Vives, Juan Luis - Article on his life and works, by Paul Lejay Vivisection - Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures Vladimir the Great, Saint - Biography of the grandson of St. Olga. Grand Duke of Kiev and All Russia, first ruler of Russia to convert to Christianity, d. 1015 Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious - The special gift of those who, in the Church of God, follow with a pure intention the ecclesiastical profession of the evangelical counsels Volta, Alessandro - Physicist (1745-1827) Volterra, Daniele da - Italian painter (1509-1566) Voluntarism - In the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which explains the universe as emanating ultimately from some form of will Voluntary - Wilful, proceeding from the will Voluntary Association, Right of - Any group of individuals freely united for the pursuit of a common end Völuspá - A wise woman Votive Mass - A Mass offered for a votum, a special intention Votive Offerings - The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in consequence looked upon as set apart by this act of consecration Votive Offices - One not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying a special devotion Vows - A promise made to God Vulgate, Revision of - In the spring of 1907 the public press announced that Pius X had determined to begin preparations for a critical revision of the Latin Bible